are substances are obtained from bacteria and fungi. Antibiotics are used for many different purposes. The most important of these uses is as drugs to fight various diseases caused by harmful microorganisms. use of antibiotics has now made it possible to treat many diseases that were fatal prior to development of antibiotics. A few are used to treat certain cancers.
Antibiotics cure diseases by their property of being selectively toxic to microorganisms. When administered to a patient, they damage certain types of cells in the patient's body, but do not damage others. Antibiotics used as medicines are harmful to the cells of disease-causing microorganisms, but not normally not harmful for the normal body cells. Such antibiotics are used to treat a variety of bacterial diseases. A small number of antibiotics, have also been developed to attack human cells for treatment of cancer. They are able to cure cancer by only damaging cells that are in the process of dividing.
Antibiotics are also used to treat infectious diseases in animals and to control bacteria and fungi that damage fruit and grain. Sometimes small amounts of antibiotics are added to livestock feed to stimulate the animals' growth. Small quantities of antibiotics are also used as food preservatives.
Advantages of Antibiotics
Macrolide antibiotics are strongly germ-killing medicines. Macrolide antibiotics have been regarded among the best-tolerated antibiotics for almost 50 years.
it has broad antibacterial spectrum
it is simple to use which have convenient dosing regimens – daily or twice dosing regimen
It has low incidence of gastrointestinal side effects.
This drug can be used broadly by all age groups.
It’s safe in pregnancy period too.
It has enhanced acid stabilities
It does not create problem in tissue and intracellular penetration.
Disadvantages of Antibiotics
Some antibiotics induce hyper-sensitivity and cause allergic response.
Most anti-microbial drugs, antibiotics included, cause toxic side effects. Their Long-term health hazards are not known.
New strains (mutants) formed by mutations are resistant to the antibiotics. As time passes by, those new mutants are more adaptable and replace the non-mutated ones, as they can withstand the attack of antibiotics and are " selected by nature ". Consequently, the resistant mutants will become the dominant species within the bacterial communities.
- Without an effective drug, previously treatable infectious diseases may be incurable. (e.g. Tuberculosis)
- Patients carrying the pathogens (or antigens) may further spread them to other society members.
- This may lead to an epidemic. The cost of medical care could be huge.
Killing of the normal microbial communities in our body. We may lose some of the beneficial mutualistic bacteria in the body. This will upset the normal balance of existing microflora and microfauna.
Heavy indiscriminate use of antibiotics in poultry (meat, dairy products) production may result in the transfer of residual antibiotics to human food and the transfer of resistant bacteria to humans.
The " resistant gene " of mutant may be transferred to another pathogenic species thus spreading a health hazard.