Antibiotics

Antibiotics
Antibiotics Introduction
Antibiotics History
Antibiotics Classes
All Antibiotics Classes Table
Types of Antibiotics
Indications for Antibiotics
Antibiotic Pharmacodynamics
Alternatives to Antibiotics
   - Some Alternatives
   - Natural Alternatives
   - Homeopathy Alternatives
   - Antibacterial Essential Oils
Antibiotic Resistance
  - Antibiotic Resistance History
  - Antibiotic Resistance Introduction
  - Signs of Antibiotic Resistance
  - Resistant Organisms
  - Bacterial Mechanisms
  - Causes of Antibiotic Resistance
  - Combating Antibiotic Resistance
Antibiotic Side Effects
   - Antibiotics Allergies
Antibiotics and Alcohol


Antibiotics for Aerobic and Anaerobic


Aerobic Anaerobic Bacteria
Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria to beta-lactam antibiotics in the United States Antibiotic Production by Anaerobic Bacteria

Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria to beta-lactam Antibiotics

Beta-Lactam antibiotics are critical agents in the treatment of anaerobic infections. Susceptibility to these agents, however, varies widely, depending on the specific drug and organism; has not been constant over time; and differs in various geographic locations within the United States for many species. For the organisms in the Bacteroides fragilis group, the beta-lactam antibiotics with the most consistent activity are imipenem and combinations of a beta-lactam drug plus a beta-lactamase inhibitor, such as ticarcillin/clavulanate and ampicillin/sulbactam. Antibiotics with less activity include cefoxitin, piperacillin, cefotetan, and ceftizoxime. In other species of anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, beta-lactamase production is seen with increasing frequency. In vitro susceptibility of these strains is now similar to that of the B. fragilis group, with imipenem, ticarcillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, and cefoxitin being the most active drugs. The anaerobic gram-positive cocci and bacilli remain, for the most part, highly susceptible to penicillins and imipenem.

Antibiotic Treatment of Anaerobic Infections

The discovery of effective antimicrobial drugs has substantially improved the therapeutic outlook for patients with anaerobic infections. In addition, the pathophysiology of anaerobic infections has been elucidated by comparative antibiotic trials and the use of antibiotic probes in experimental animal models. Facultative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, are responsible for acute peritonitis and sepsis associated with bowel perforation. Anaerobes, particularly Bacteroides fragilis, play the seminal role in subsequent abscess formation. Treatment of only the facultative bacteria, without adequate antibiotic coverage for anaerobic bacteria, leads to clinical failures with complications of abscess formation. Such therapeutic misadventures have been witnessed in the treatment of mixed infections with cephalosporins and penicillins that lack significant activity against anaerobes. Similarly, use of metronidazole or clindamycin as a single agent is associated with failures caused by infection with facultative bacteria. Mixed infections involve complex interactions between facultative bacteria and strict anaerobes, many of which possess intrinsic pathogenicity. The best therapeutic results are realized with antimicrobial drugs that are active against both types of microorganisms.

Antibiotic Production by Anaerobic Bacteria

Soils from aerobic and anaerobic sources were investigated for the possible presence of bacteria which produce antibiotics under anaerobic conditions of growth. The screening techniques devised for this study yielded 157 soil bacteria which, during anaerobic growth, produced antibiotic activity against aerobic test bacteria.

Studies on choice of media, presence of oxygen, and changes in antibiotic activity during growth indicated that representative strains of these bacteria produced mixtures of antibiotics. The activity was heat labile.

The stability toward heat of the antibiotics produced by these isolates was tested by heating 10-ml aliquots of medium P-1 culture supernatant solutions, adjusted to pH 7, for 5 min in an Arnold sterilizer. The preparations were immediately cooled in ice water after heating. As may be seen in Table 4, all antibiotic activity in these preparations was destroyed by the heat treatment.

Source - www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Antibiotics Dictionary

Antibiotics for Acne
Antibiotics for Acute Otitis Media
Antibiotics for Abscessed Tooth
Antibiotics for Abortion
Antibiotics for Abdominal Infection
Antibiotics for Acid Reflux
Antibiotics for Acinetobacter
Antibiotics for Acidophilus
Antibiotics for Actinomyces
Antibiotics for Adults
Antibiotics for Adenoids
Antibiotics for Advantages
Antibiotics for Aerobic Anaerobic
Antibiotics for AECB
Antibiotics for Aeromonas
Antibiotics for Agriculture
Antibiotics for Agar
Antibiotics for Age
Antibiotics for Aggressive Periodontitis
Antibiotics for AIDS(HIV/AIDS)
Antibiotics for Allergies
Antibiotics for ALS
Antibiotics for Alpacas
Antibiotics for Alzheimer's
Antibiotics for Amoebiasis
Antibiotics for Amoeba
Antibiotics for Aminoglycosides
Antibiotics for Ammonia
Antibiotics for Anthrax
Antibiotics for Animal Bites
Antibiotics for Anemia
Antibiotics for Ankylosing Spondylitis
Antibiotics for Angular Cheilitis
Antibiotics for Anorectal Abscess
Antibiotics for Anorexia
Antibiotics for Antifungal
Antibiotics for Antineoplastics
Antibiotics for Antiviral
Antibiotics for ANUG
Antibiotics for Anxiety
Antibiotics for Aortic Insufficiency
Antibiotics for Appendicitis
Antibiotics for Arthritis
Antibiotics for Arthroscopic Surgery
Antibiotics for Aspiration Pneumonia
Antibiotics for Asthma
Antibiotics for Aspergillus
Antibiotics for Asplenia



Antibioticsfor.com does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
?2011 Antibioticsfor.com, All rights reserved.