Antibiotics

Antibiotics
Antibiotics Introduction
Antibiotics History
Antibiotics Classes
All Antibiotics Classes Table
Types of Antibiotics
Indications for Antibiotics
Antibiotic Pharmacodynamics
Alternatives to Antibiotics
   - Some Alternatives
   - Natural Alternatives
   - Homeopathy Alternatives
   - Antibacterial Essential Oils
Antibiotic Resistance
  - Antibiotic Resistance History
  - Antibiotic Resistance Introduction
  - Signs of Antibiotic Resistance
  - Resistant Organisms
  - Bacterial Mechanisms
  - Causes of Antibiotic Resistance
  - Combating Antibiotic Resistance
Antibiotic Side Effects
   - Antibiotics Allergies
Antibiotics and Alcohol


Signs of Antibiotic Resistance


The first signs of antibiotic resistance

There has probably been a gene pool in nature for resistance to antibiotic as long as there has been for antibiotic production, for most microbes that are antibiotic producers are resistant to their own antibiotic. In retrospect, it is not surprising that resistance to penicillin in some strains of staphylococci was recognized almost immediately after introduction of the drug in 1946. Likewise, very soon after their introduction in the late 1940s, resistance to streptomycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline was noted. By 1953, during a Shigella outbreak in Japan, a strain of the dysentery bacillus (Shigella dysenteriae) was isolated which was multiple drug resistant, exhibiting resistance to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin and the sulfonamides. Over the years, and continuing into the present almost every known bacterial pathogen has developed resistance to one or more antibiotics in clinical use.

Evidence also began to accumulate that bacteria could pass genes for drug resistance between strains and even between species. For example, antibiotic-resistance genes of staphylococci are carried on plasmids that can be exchanged with Bacillus, Streptococcus and Enterococcus providing the means for acquiring additional genes and gene combinations. Some are carried on transposons, segments of DNA that can exist either in the chromosome or in plasmids. In any case, it is clear that genes for antibiotic resistance can be exchanged between strains and species of bacteria by means of the processes of horizontal gene transmission (HGT).

Antibiotics Dictionary

Antibiotics for Acne
Antibiotics for Acute Otitis Media
Antibiotics for Abscessed Tooth
Antibiotics for Abortion
Antibiotics for Abdominal Infection
Antibiotics for Acid Reflux
Antibiotics for Acinetobacter
Antibiotics for Acidophilus
Antibiotics for Actinomyces
Antibiotics for Adults
Antibiotics for Adenoids
Antibiotics for Advantages
Antibiotics for Aerobic Anaerobic
Antibiotics for AECB
Antibiotics for Aeromonas
Antibiotics for Agriculture
Antibiotics for Agar
Antibiotics for Age
Antibiotics for Aggressive Periodontitis
Antibiotics for AIDS(HIV/AIDS)
Antibiotics for Allergies
Antibiotics for ALS
Antibiotics for Alpacas
Antibiotics for Alzheimer's
Antibiotics for Amoebiasis
Antibiotics for Amoeba
Antibiotics for Aminoglycosides
Antibiotics for Ammonia
Antibiotics for Anthrax
Antibiotics for Animal Bites
Antibiotics for Anemia
Antibiotics for Ankylosing Spondylitis
Antibiotics for Angular Cheilitis
Antibiotics for Anorectal Abscess
Antibiotics for Anorexia
Antibiotics for Antifungal
Antibiotics for Antineoplastics
Antibiotics for Antiviral
Antibiotics for ANUG
Antibiotics for Anxiety
Antibiotics for Aortic Insufficiency
Antibiotics for Appendicitis
Antibiotics for Arthritis
Antibiotics for Arthroscopic Surgery
Antibiotics for Aspiration Pneumonia
Antibiotics for Asthma
Antibiotics for Aspergillus
Antibiotics for Asplenia



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